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Als integraler Bestandteil der Lions-Familie haben. Leos mit über Leo Clubs in über Ländern auch ihr eigenes weltweites Netzwerk. Dieser. Leo-Lions-Clubs erleichtern Leos, die ihr Studium abschließen, sowie sich qualifizierenden jungen Erwachsenen (bis 30 Jahre) den Clubübergang, da ihnen. Der Lions-Leo-Service-Day stand unter dem Motto „Jugend“, wobei jeder Club seinen Spendenzweck selbst.

International programs such as club twinning, youth exchange and youth camps enable Leos to connect with and learn from other young people around the world.

Leo clubs can be formed in state or private schools. The supervision by the sponsoring Lions club is exercised in full cooperation with the school authorities.

The Leo club is subject to the regulations and policies established for all student organizations and activities.

The faculty advisor also works closely with the Leo club advisor. When you join Leos you become a member of a worldwide organisation with more than 6, Leo Clubs and a membership in excess of , operating under the sponsorship of Lions Clubs in nations.

These Leo Clubs have proud records of Achievement in all areas of service to their local communities. All of our clubs provide ample opportunity for their members to learn and to be involved.

Participation in the Leo Club Program enhances the lives of young people. As active community members, Leos learn the true meaning of the Leo club motto — leadership, experience and opportunity.

To Join a Leos Club, is by Invitation. The form goes to our National Office and is then forwarded on to a District or Lions Club in your area.

Spotlight on Children is the international project for Leo Clubs, providing Leos with ways to help children, such as collecting food and clothes for children in need, repairing a playground, implementing an after-school tutoring program, visiting children in a hospital or fundraising for immunization programs.

More details are in the brochure available on our Reources page. Several Leo clubs around the world are interested in forming a relationship with a club in another country.

This is known as club twinning. Contact a club directly using the details on our Leo Twinning page. The presence of numerous human habitations close to the National Park results in conflict between lions, local people and their livestock.

Lions are included in the Species Survival Plan , a coordinated attempt by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums to increase its chances of survival.

The plan was started in for the Asiatic lion, but was suspended when it was found that most Asiatic lions in North American zoos were not genetically pure , having been hybridised with African lions.

The African lion plan started in , and focused on the South African population, although there are difficulties in assessing the genetic diversity of captive lions because most individuals are of unknown origin, making the maintenance of genetic diversity a problem.

The former popularity of the Barbary lion as a zoo animal means captive lions are likely descended from Barbary lion stock. WildLink International in collaboration with Oxford University launched an ambitious International Barbary Lion Project with the aim of identifying and breeding Barbary lions in captivity for eventual reintroduction into a national park in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

Lions are part of a group of exotic animals that have been central to zoo exhibits since the late 18th century; members of this group are invariably large vertebrates and include elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, large primates and other big cats; zoos sought to gather as many of these species as possible.

They are considered an ambassador species and are kept for tourism, education and conservation purposes. His two sisters, born in , were still alive in August At the ancient Egyptian cities of Taremu and Per-Bast were temples dedicated to the lion goddesses of Egypt, Sekhmet and Bast , and at Taremu there was a temple dedicated to the son of the deity Maahes the lion prince, where lions were kept and allowed to roam within the temple.

The Greeks called the city Leontopolis "City of Lions" and documented that practice. Lions were kept and bred by Assyrian kings as early as BC, [] and Alexander the Great was said to have been presented with tame lions by the Malhi of northern India.

Roman notables including Sulla , Pompey and Julius Caesar often ordered the mass slaughter of hundreds of lions at a time.

Marco Polo reported that Kublai Khan kept lions. The first European "zoos" spread among noble and royal families in the 13th century, and until the 17th century were called seraglios ; at that time they came to be called menageries , an extension of the cabinet of curiosities.

They spread from France and Italy during the Renaissance to the rest of Europe. By extension, menageries and seraglios served as demonstrations of the dominance of humanity over nature; the defeat of such natural "lords" by a cow in astonished spectators and the flight of an elephant before a rhinoceros drew jeers.

The frequency of such fights slowly declined in the 17th century with the spread of menageries and their appropriation by commoners. The tradition of keeping big cats as pets lasted into the 19th century, at which time it was seen as highly eccentric.

The presence of lions at the Tower of London was intermittent, being restocked when a monarch or his consort, such as Margaret of Anjou the wife of Henry VI , either sought or were given animals.

Records indicate animals in the Tower of London were kept in poor conditions in the 17th century, in contrast to more open conditions in Florence at the time.

The trade in wild animals flourished alongside improved colonial trade of the 19th century; lions were considered fairly common and inexpensive. Although they would barter higher than tigers, they were less costly than larger or more difficult-to-transport animals such as the giraffe and hippopotamus, and much less than giant pandas.

Lions were kept in cramped and squalid conditions at London Zoo until a larger lion house with roomier cages was built in the s. Lion hunting has occurred since ancient times and was often a royal pastime.

The earliest surviving record of lion hunting is an ancient Egyptian inscription dated circa BC that mentions Pharaoh Amenhotep III killing lions "with his own arrows" during the first ten years of his rule.

The Assyrians would release captive lions in a reserved space for the king to hunt; this event would be watched by spectators as the king and his men, on horseback or chariots, killed the lions with arrows and spears.

Lions were also hunted during the Mughal Empire , where Emperor Jahangir is said to have excelled at it. Royal hunting of lions was intended to demonstrate the power of the king over nature.

The Maasai people have traditionally viewed the killing of lions as a rite of passage. Historically, lions were hunted by individuals, however, due to reduced lion populations, elders discourage solo lion hunts.

This resulted in big cats being always suspected of being man-eaters, representing "both the fear of nature and the satisfaction of having overcome it".

Lion-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of lions in combat with other animals, usually dogs. Records of it exist in ancient times through until the seventeenth century.

It was finally banned in Vienna by and England in The term is also often used for the taming and display of other big cats such as tigers, leopards and cougars.

The practice began in the early 19th century by Frenchman Henri Martin and American Isaac Van Amburgh , who both toured widely and whose techniques were copied by a number of followers.

Martin composed a pantomime titled Les Lions de Mysore "the lions of Mysore" , an idea that Amburgh quickly borrowed.

These acts eclipsed equestrianism acts as the central display of circus shows and entered public consciousness in the early 20th century with cinema.

In demonstrating the superiority of human over animal, lion taming served a purpose similar to animal fights of previous centuries.

One well-publicised case is the Tsavo maneaters ; in , 28 officially recorded railway workers building the Kenya-Uganda Railway were taken by lions over nine months during the construction of a bridge over the Tsavo River in Kenya.

The infirmity theory, including tooth decay, is not favoured by all researchers; an analysis of teeth and jaws of man-eating lions in museum collections suggests that while tooth decay may explain some incidents, prey depletion in human-dominated areas is a more likely cause of lion predation on humans.

The authors note the relationship is well-attested among other pantherines and primates in the fossil record. American and Tanzanian scientists report that man-eating behaviour in rural areas of Tanzania increased greatly from to At least villagers were attacked and many eaten over this period — a number far exceeding the Tsavo attacks.

While the expansion of villages into bush country is one concern, the authors argue conservation policy must mitigate the danger because in this case, conservation contributes directly to human deaths.

Cases in Lindi in which lions seize humans from the centres of substantial villages have been documented. According to Robert R.

Frump, Mozambican refugees regularly crossing Kruger National Park, South Africa, at night are attacked and eaten by lions; park officials have said man-eating is a problem there.

Frump said thousands may have been killed in the decades after apartheid sealed the park and forced refugees to cross the park at night.

For nearly a century before the border was sealed, Mozambicans had regularly crossed the park in daytime with little harm. Packer estimates between and Tanzanians are killed each year by wild animals and that lions are thought to kill at least 70 of these.

According to Packer between and , lions attacked people in Tanzania and killed Packer and Ikanda are among the few conservationists who believe western conservation efforts must take account of these matters because of ethical concerns about human life and the long-term success of conservation efforts and lion preservation.

A man-eating lion was killed by game scouts in Southern Tanzania in April Baldus, the GTZ wildlife programme coordinator, said it was likely that the lion preyed on humans because it had a large abscess beneath a cracked molar and wrote, "This lion probably experienced a lot of pain, particularly when it was chewing".

The "All-Africa" record of man-eating generally is considered to be a collection of incidents between the early s and the late s in modern-day Tanzania inflicted by a pride known as the "Njombe lions".

Game warden and hunter George Rushby eventually dispatched the pride, which over three generations is thought to have killed and eaten 1, to 2, people in Njombe district.

Sometimes, Asiatic lions may become man-eaters. The area of the Gir sanctuary is now insufficient to sustain their large number [] and lions have moved outside it, making them a potential threat to people in and around the park.

The lion is one of the most widely recognised animal symbols in human culture. It has been extensively depicted in sculptures and paintings, on national flags, and in contemporary films and literature.

The lion has been depicted as "king of the jungle" and "king of beasts", and thus became a popular symbol for royalty and stateliness.

Depictions of lions are known from the Upper Paleolithic period. Carvings and paintings of lions discovered in the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves in France have been dated to 15, to 17, years old.

The ancient Egyptians portrayed several of their war deities as lionesses, which they revered as fierce hunters.

Egyptian deities associated with lions include: The lion was also believed to act as a guide to the underworld, through which the sun was believed to pass each night.

The presence of lion-footed tombs found in Egypt and images of mummies carried on the backs of lions suggests this close association of the lions with the underworld.

In Sub-Saharan Africa , cultural views of the lion have varied by region. In some cultures, the lion symbolises power and royalty, and some rulers had the word "lion" in their nickname.

In parts of West Africa, to be compared with a lion was considered to be a great compliment. In parts of West and East Africa, the lion is associated with healing and is regarded as the link between seers and the supernatural.

In other East African traditions, the lion is the symbol of laziness. The lion was a prominent symbol in ancient Mesopotamia from Sumer up to Assyrian and Babylonian times, where it was strongly associated with kingship.

The theme of the royal lion hunt, a common motif in the early iconography in West Asia, symbolized death and resurrection; the continuation of life was ensured by the killing of a god-like animal.

In the Book of Judges , Samson kills a lion as he travels to visit a Philistine woman. The power and ferocity of the lion is invoked when describing the anger of God Amos 3: The book of Isaiah uses the imagery of a lion laying with a calf and child, and eating straw to portray the harmony of creation Isa In the Puranic texts of Hinduism , Narasimha "man-lion" a half-lion, half-man incarnation or avatar of Vishnu , is worshipped by his devotees and saved the child devotee Prahlada from his father, the evil demon king Hiranyakashipu ; [] Vishnu takes the form of half-man, half-lion] creature in Narasimha, where he has a human torso and lower body, and a lion-like face and claws.

It was originally used only by Rajputs , a Hindu Kshatriya or military caste. After the birth of the Khalsa brotherhood in , the Sikhs also adopted the name "Singh" due to the wishes of Guru Gobind Singh.

Along with millions of Hindu Rajputs today, it is also used by over 20 million Sikhs worldwide. The Asiatic lion is found as an emblem on numerous flags and coats of arms across Asia, including on the National Emblem of India.

The Asiatic lion is a common motif in Chinese art ; it was first used in art during the late Spring and Autumn period fifth or sixth century BC and became more popular during the Han Dynasty BC — AD when imperial guardian lions started to be placed in front of imperial palaces for protection.

Because lions have never been native to China, early depictions were somewhat unrealistic; after the introduction of Buddhist art to China in the Tang Dynasty after the sixth century AD, lions were usually depicted wingless with shorter, thicker bodies and curly manes.

Lion-headed figures and amulets were excavated in tombs in the Greek islands of Crete , Euboea , Rhodes , Paros and Chios.

They are associated with the Egyptian deity Sekhmet and date to the early Iron Age between the 9th and 6th centuries BC.

Similarly the wearing of lion skin such as the lion skin worn by Herackles also symbolizes victory over death. Lions are frequently depicted on coats of arms , either as a device on shields or as supporters , but the lioness is used much less frequently.

Such descriptions specify whether lions or other creatures are "rampant" rearing or "passant" crouching. The lion is used as a symbol of sporting teams, from national association football teams such as England , Scotland and Singapore to famous clubs such as the Detroit Lions [] of the NFL, Chelsea [] and Aston Villa , a team of the English Premier League , [] and by the Premiership itself, Eintracht Braunschweig of the Bundesliga , and many smaller clubs around the world.

Lions continue to appear in modern literature as characters including the messianic Aslan in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and following books from The Chronicles of Narnia series written by C.

Lewis , [] and the comedic Cowardly Lion in L. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Lion disambiguation. A species of large cat in the subfamily Pantherinae.

Linnaeus , [3]. Panthera hybrid , Liger , and Tigon. A pride of lion headed by one male at Masai Mara , Kenya. Lioness in a burst of speed while hunting in the Serengeti.

Four lionesses catching a cape buffalo in the Serengeti. Lion hunting , Lion-baiting , and Lion taming. Cultural depictions of lions. Mammal Species of the World: A Taxonomic and Geographic Reference 3rd ed.

Johns Hopkins University Press. Tomus I decima, reformata ed. Oxford English Dictionary 2nd ed. Biology and Conservation of Wild Felids: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution.

Archived from the original PDF on 5 March Verlag der Kakao-Compagnie Theodor Reichardt. A Fossil Record from ". Pleistocene Mammals of Europe.

Journal of the Geological Society of India. Archived from the original PDF on 25 September Archived from the original PDF on 21 January Retrieved 23 November Yukon Beringia Interpretive Centre.

Archived from the original PDF on Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Archived from the original PDF on 8 August Retrieved 4 September The Illustrated Natural History.

The Field Guide to Carnivores of the World 2 ed. Pantherinae , and the influence of fossil taxa and missing characters". Deutschland in der Urzeit in German.

Klima und Tierwelt im Wandel in German. University of Arizona Press. The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology Supplement Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences.

Mystery Cats of the World. The Rosen Publishing Group. Retrieved 4 July The Story of Leopons. Retrieved 25 January Archived from the original PDF on 28 July Gir Forest and the saga of the Asiatic lion.

Smithsonian Institution and the National Science Foundation. Volume 65 of Symposia of the Zoological Society of London. Zoological Society of London.

Wild Cats of the World. Retrieved 1 September By any other mane". Implications for its ex situ conservation". A Field Guide to Indian Mammals.

The Dutch Zoo Conservation Fund for funding the project. Retrieved 7 July One Is Likely a Female". Retrieved 18 April Open Science Repository Biology: The White Lions of Timbavati.

Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Maneless lions live one guy per pride". The behavior guide to African mammals: University of California Press.

The University of Chicago Press. University of Edinburgh, UK: Department of Forestry and Natural Resources. Mpala Research Centre, Nanyuki: Journal of Animal Ecology.

African Journal of Ecology. African Journal of Ecology Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. Retrieved 18 February African Lion Working Group.

Leo was one of the earliest recognized constellations, with archaeological evidence that the Mesopotamians had a similar constellation as early as BCE.

Some mythologists believe that in Sumeria, Leo represented the monster Humbaba , who was killed by Gilgamesh.

In Babylonian astronomy, the constellation was called UR. In Greek mythology , Leo was identified as the Nemean Lion which was killed by Heracles Hercules to the Romans during the first of his twelve labours.

Bacchi Sidus star of Bacchus was another of its titles, the god Bacchus always being identified with this animal. As of [update] , the Sun appears in the constellation Leo from August 10 to September In tropical astrology , the Sun is considered to be in the sign Leo from July 23 to August 22, and in sidereal astrology , from August 16 to September The sickle is marked by six stars: Rey has suggested an alternative way to connect the stars, which graphically shows a lion walking.

The stars delta Leonis , gamma Leonis , eta Leonis , and theta Leonis form the body of the lion, with gamma Leonis being of the second magnitude and delta Leonis and theta Leonis being of the third magnitude.

The stars mu Leonis, kappa Leonis , lambda Leonis , and epsilon Leonis form the head of the lion. The stars theta Leonis , iota Leonis , and sigma Leonis form the left hind leg of the lion, with sigma Leonis being the foot.

The stars theta Leonis and rho Leonis form the right hind leg, with rho Leonis being the foot. The stars eta Leonis and omicron Leonis form the right front foot of the Lion.

Media related to Leo constellation at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Leo Constellation List of stars in Leo.

List of stars in Leo. Archived from the original on January 16, Phil Simpson Springer Guidebook to the Constellations: Telescopic Sights, Tales, and Myths, p.

A Visual Reference to the Universe.

While almost everyone else is entranced by the Leonine personality, Leos spielstand frankfurt their own harshest critic and consider each day a challenge to be the best, brightest, and boldest Lion they can be. Zoological Society of London. List of stars in Leo. Joy clu star formation in this region is thought to be due to the presence of the dusty bar, which sends shock vom millionär zum obdachlosen through its rotation to an area with a diameter of 2, light-years. There is a strong www.spass.net kostenlos that gives these natives much staying power. At the ancient Egyptian cities of Taremu and Per-Bast were temples dedicated to the lion goddesses of Egypt, Sekhmet and Bastand at Taremu there was a temple dedicated to the son of the deity Maahes the lion prince, where lions were kept spielstand spanien allowed to roam within abzüge englisch temple. Data collection and spectrogram and waveform analyses" PDF. The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. For nearly a century before the border was sealed, Mozambicans had regularly crossed the park in daytime with little harm. The book of Isaiah uses quick option imagery of a lion laying with a calf and child, and eating straw to portray the harmony of creation Isa Historical and present distribution of Panthera leo in AfricaAsia and Europe. One Is Likely a Female". News News from Leos around Australia. They are considered an ambassador species and are kept for tourism, education and conservation purposes.

Leo lions - phrase... super

Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Die Mitgliederstruktur ist generell sehr gemischt, wobei jeder einzelne Club häufig gewisse Schwerpunkte aufweist. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Üblicherweise wird für jede Activity der Zweck neu festgelegt, wobei viele Clubs auch eine Activity häufiger für denselben Zweck durchführen so genannte Daueractivity. Juni existierten in Deutschland Leo Clubs mit 3. Damit wurde die erste deutschlandweite Activity geboren.

lions leo -

In anderen europäischen Ländern sind Leos ebenfalls stark vertreten, insbesondere in Italien und Finnland. So stehen wir vor Supermärkten, bitten um Lebensmittelspenden, packen Weihnachtsgeschenke gegen eine Spende ein oder spielen Bingo in Seniorenheimen. Juli Distrikte und 18 Multi-Distrikte, 5. Dies geschieht vorzugsweise im Teamwork. Überregionale Aktivitäten der deutschen Leos finden unter dem Dach des Hilfswerk der deutschen Leos e. Dezember ist er der älteste im deutschsprachigen Raum. Damit wurde die erste deutschlandweite Activity geboren. Leos ist eine Weiterleitung auf diesen Artikel. Zwischen Gesamtdistrikt-Vorstand und den einzelnen Leo-Clubs wird vor allem über die drei Distriktvertreter kommuniziert, die auch weitestgehend alle LEO Clubs bei ihren Clubabenden besuchen und Informationen austauschen. Jeder Club hat die folgenden Amtsträger, die nach einer weltweiten Festlegung des Leojahres jeweils vom 1.

There are four stars of first or second magnitude, which render this constellation especially prominent:. Leo is also home to one bright variable star , the red giant R Leonis.

It is a Mira variable with a minimum magnitude of 10 and normal maximum magnitude of 6; it periodically brightens to magnitude 4.

R Leonis, light-years from Earth, has a period of days and a diameter of solar diameters. Wolf is a red dwarf of magnitude It is about 13 billion years old, making it one of the oldest stars in the Galaxy.

It has the lowest metallicity of any known star. The Leo Ring , a cloud of hydrogen, helium gas, is found in orbit of two galaxies found within this constellation.

It is at a distance of 37 million light-years and has a somewhat distorted shape due to gravitational interactions with the other members of the Triplet, which are pulling stars away from M Eventually, the outermost stars may form a dwarf galaxy orbiting M M95 and M96 are both spiral galaxies 20 million light-years from Earth.

Though they are visible as fuzzy objects in small telescopes, their structure is only visible in larger instruments. M95 is a barred spiral galaxy.

NGC is a barred spiral galaxy discovered by William Herschel in It is very similar in size and shape to the Milky Way and is located 25 million light-years from Earth.

In its core, NGC has many "hotspots", which have been found to be near regions of star formation. The star formation in this region is thought to be due to the presence of the dusty bar, which sends shock waves through its rotation to an area with a diameter of 2, light-years.

The outskirts of the galaxy have many young open clusters. Leo is also home to some of the largest structures in the observable universe. Its parent body is Comet Tempel-Tuttle , which causes significant outbursts every 35 years.

The normal peak rate is approximately 10 meteors per hour. The January Leonids are a minor shower that peaks between January 1 and 7.

Information and club materials include new member kits, guides for service activities, leadership aids, ideas for fundraising, club supplies and international newsletters.

Leos can participate in the annual Lions Clubs International Convention, attending their own functions. Leos are also entitled to receive official awards and recognition for their achievements.

Because of the international scope of Leo clubs, members enjoy the global identity of a worldwide organization. International programs such as club twinning, youth exchange and youth camps enable Leos to connect with and learn from other young people around the world.

Leo clubs can be formed in state or private schools. The supervision by the sponsoring Lions club is exercised in full cooperation with the school authorities.

The Leo club is subject to the regulations and policies established for all student organizations and activities. The faculty advisor also works closely with the Leo club advisor.

When you join Leos you become a member of a worldwide organisation with more than 6, Leo Clubs and a membership in excess of , operating under the sponsorship of Lions Clubs in nations.

These Leo Clubs have proud records of Achievement in all areas of service to their local communities. All of our clubs provide ample opportunity for their members to learn and to be involved.

Participation in the Leo Club Program enhances the lives of young people. As active community members, Leos learn the true meaning of the Leo club motto — leadership, experience and opportunity.

To Join a Leos Club, is by Invitation. The form goes to our National Office and is then forwarded on to a District or Lions Club in your area.

Spotlight on Children is the international project for Leo Clubs, providing Leos with ways to help children, such as collecting food and clothes for children in need, repairing a playground, implementing an after-school tutoring program, visiting children in a hospital or fundraising for immunization programs.

Female and male lions associate only when mating. Males in coalitions of three or four individuals exhibit a pronounced hierarchy, in which one male dominates the others.

Dominant males mate more frequently than their coalition partners; during a study carried out between December and December , three females were observed switching mating partners in favour of the dominant male.

The lion is a generalist hypercarnivore [] and is considered to be both an apex and keystone predator due to its wide prey spectrum.

Lions kill other predators such as leopard , cheetah and spotted hyena but seldom consume them. The prey-to-predator weight ratio of 10— Young lions first display stalking behaviour at around three months of age, although they do not participate in hunting until they are almost a year old and begin to hunt effectively when nearing the age of two.

Cooperatively hunting lions are usually successful. Males attached to prides do not usually participate in group hunting. They take advantage of factors that reduce visibility; many kills take place near some form of cover or at night.

To protect their cattle from such attacks with that knowledge in mind, farmers have found it effective to paint eyes on the hindquarters of each cow, which is usually enough to make hunting lions think they have been seen and select easier prey.

They also kill prey by enclosing its mouth and nostrils in their jaws, which also results in asphyxia. Cubs suffer most when food is scarce but otherwise all pride members eat their fill, including old and crippled lions, which can live on leftovers.

On hot days, the pride retreats to shade with one or two males standing guard. Lions scavenge on carrion when the opportunity arises; they scavenge animals dead from natural causes such as disease or those that were killed by other predators.

Scavenging lions keep a constant lookout for circling vultures, which indicate the death or distress of an animal. Lions and spotted hyenas occupy a similar ecological niche and where they coexist they compete for prey and carrion; a review of data across several studies indicates a dietary overlap of Lions seize the kills of spotted hyenas; in the Ngorongoro crater it is common for lions to subsist largely on kills stolen from hyenas, causing the hyenas to increase their kill rate.

The two species attack one another even when there is no food involved for no apparent reason. Spotted hyenas have adapted by frequently mobbing lions that enter their territories.

Population densities of wild dogs are low in areas where lions are more abundant. Lions have been known to kill crocodiles venturing onto land, [] while the reverse is true for lions entering waterways, evidenced by the occasional lion claw found in crocodile stomachs.

Most lionesses reproduce by the time they are four years of age. Generation length of the lion is about seven years. She will often hunt alone while the cubs are still helpless, staying relatively close to the den.

Usually, the mother does not integrate herself and her cubs back into the pride until the cubs are six to eight weeks old. Pride lionesses often synchronise their reproductive cycles and communal rearing and suckling of the young, which suckle indiscriminately from any or all of the nursing females in the pride.

The synchronization of births is advantageous because the cubs grow to being roughly the same size and have an equal chance of survival, and sucklings are not dominated by older cubs.

When first introduced to the rest of the pride, lion cubs lack confidence when confronted with adults other than their mother.

They soon begin to immerse themselves in the pride life, however, playing among themselves or attempting to initiate play with the adults.

Male tolerance of the cubs varies — sometimes a male will patiently let the cubs play with his tail or his mane, whereas another may snarl and bat the cubs away.

Weaning occurs after six or seven months. Male lions reach maturity at about three years of age and at four to five years are capable of challenging and displacing adult males associated with another pride.

They begin to age and weaken at between 10 and 15 years of age at the latest. Females often fiercely defend their cubs from a usurping male but are rarely successful unless a group of three or four mothers within a pride join forces against the male.

Both male and female lions may be ousted from prides to become nomads, although most females usually remain with their birth pride. When a pride becomes too large, however, the youngest generation of female cubs may be forced to leave to find their own territory.

Lions of both sexes may interact homosexually. Lions are shown to be involved in group homosexual and courtship activities; males will also head-rub and roll around with each other before simulating sex together.

Although adult lions have no natural predators, evidence suggests most die violently from attacks by humans or other lions.

Careless lions may be maimed when hunting prey. Ticks commonly infest the ears, neck and groin regions of lions. Lions sought unsuccessfully to evade the biting flies by climbing trees or crawling into hyena burrows; many perished or migrated and the local population dropped from 70 to 15 individuals.

During the outbreak, several lions died from pneumonia and encephalitis. The virus occurs with high-to-endemic frequency in several wild lion populations but is mostly absent from Asiatic and Namibian lions.

The most common peaceful, tactile gestures are head rubbing and social licking , [] which have been compared with grooming in primates.

Males tend to rub other males, while cubs and females rub females. The head and neck are the most common parts of the body licked; this behaviour may have arisen out of utility because lions cannot lick these areas themselves.

Lions have an array of facial expressions and body postures that serve as visual gestures. The repertoire of vocalisations is also large; rather than discrete signals, variations in intensity and pitch appear to be central to communication.

Most lion vocalisations are variations of growling, snarling, miaowing and roaring. Other sounds produced include purring, puffing, bleating and humming.

The lion prefers grassy plains and savannahs, scrub bordering rivers and open woodlands with bushes. It is absent from rainforest and rarely enters closed forest.

In Africa, the range of the lion originally spanned most of the central rainforest zone and the Sahara desert. In Eurasia , the lion once ranged from Greece to India; Herodotus reported that lions had been common in Greece in BC; they attacked the baggage camels of the Persian king Xerxes on his march through the country.

Aristotle considered them rare by BC, and by AD, they had been extirpated. Between the late 19th and late 20th centuries, it became extinct in Southwest Asia.

By the late 19th century, the lion had been extirpated in most of northern India and Turkey. There are no subsequent reliable reports from Iran.

Its habitat is a mixture of dry savannah forest and very dry, deciduous scrub forest. Habitat loss and conflicts with humans are considered to be the most significant threats to the species.

When favourable habitat is inundated in the wet season, lions expand home ranges and travel greater distances, and cub mortality is high.

In , a population of up to lions that was previously thought to have been extirpated was filmed in the Alatash National Park , Ethiopia, close to the Sudanese border.

The West African lion population is isolated from the one in Central Africa, with little or no exchange of breeding individuals.

In , it was estimated that this population consists of about animals, including fewer than mature individuals. They persist in three protected areas in the region, mostly in one population in the W A P protected area complex, shared by Benin , Burkina Faso and Niger.

This population is listed as Critically Endangered. These were the first sightings of lions in the country in 39 years. Five hair samples from this lion were collected and compared with samples from museum specimens that had been shot in the area in By , no lions were recorded in the protected area so the population is considered locally extinct.

The population has risen from approximately lions in to about in The presence of numerous human habitations close to the National Park results in conflict between lions, local people and their livestock.

Lions are included in the Species Survival Plan , a coordinated attempt by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums to increase its chances of survival.

The plan was started in for the Asiatic lion, but was suspended when it was found that most Asiatic lions in North American zoos were not genetically pure , having been hybridised with African lions.

The African lion plan started in , and focused on the South African population, although there are difficulties in assessing the genetic diversity of captive lions because most individuals are of unknown origin, making the maintenance of genetic diversity a problem.

The former popularity of the Barbary lion as a zoo animal means captive lions are likely descended from Barbary lion stock.

WildLink International in collaboration with Oxford University launched an ambitious International Barbary Lion Project with the aim of identifying and breeding Barbary lions in captivity for eventual reintroduction into a national park in the Atlas Mountains of Morocco.

Lions are part of a group of exotic animals that have been central to zoo exhibits since the late 18th century; members of this group are invariably large vertebrates and include elephants, rhinoceroses, hippopotamuses, large primates and other big cats; zoos sought to gather as many of these species as possible.

They are considered an ambassador species and are kept for tourism, education and conservation purposes.

His two sisters, born in , were still alive in August At the ancient Egyptian cities of Taremu and Per-Bast were temples dedicated to the lion goddesses of Egypt, Sekhmet and Bast , and at Taremu there was a temple dedicated to the son of the deity Maahes the lion prince, where lions were kept and allowed to roam within the temple.

The Greeks called the city Leontopolis "City of Lions" and documented that practice. Lions were kept and bred by Assyrian kings as early as BC, [] and Alexander the Great was said to have been presented with tame lions by the Malhi of northern India.

Roman notables including Sulla , Pompey and Julius Caesar often ordered the mass slaughter of hundreds of lions at a time. Marco Polo reported that Kublai Khan kept lions.

The first European "zoos" spread among noble and royal families in the 13th century, and until the 17th century were called seraglios ; at that time they came to be called menageries , an extension of the cabinet of curiosities.

They spread from France and Italy during the Renaissance to the rest of Europe. By extension, menageries and seraglios served as demonstrations of the dominance of humanity over nature; the defeat of such natural "lords" by a cow in astonished spectators and the flight of an elephant before a rhinoceros drew jeers.

The frequency of such fights slowly declined in the 17th century with the spread of menageries and their appropriation by commoners.

The tradition of keeping big cats as pets lasted into the 19th century, at which time it was seen as highly eccentric. The presence of lions at the Tower of London was intermittent, being restocked when a monarch or his consort, such as Margaret of Anjou the wife of Henry VI , either sought or were given animals.

Records indicate animals in the Tower of London were kept in poor conditions in the 17th century, in contrast to more open conditions in Florence at the time.

The trade in wild animals flourished alongside improved colonial trade of the 19th century; lions were considered fairly common and inexpensive.

Although they would barter higher than tigers, they were less costly than larger or more difficult-to-transport animals such as the giraffe and hippopotamus, and much less than giant pandas.

Lions were kept in cramped and squalid conditions at London Zoo until a larger lion house with roomier cages was built in the s. Lion hunting has occurred since ancient times and was often a royal pastime.

The earliest surviving record of lion hunting is an ancient Egyptian inscription dated circa BC that mentions Pharaoh Amenhotep III killing lions "with his own arrows" during the first ten years of his rule.

The Assyrians would release captive lions in a reserved space for the king to hunt; this event would be watched by spectators as the king and his men, on horseback or chariots, killed the lions with arrows and spears.

Lions were also hunted during the Mughal Empire , where Emperor Jahangir is said to have excelled at it. Royal hunting of lions was intended to demonstrate the power of the king over nature.

The Maasai people have traditionally viewed the killing of lions as a rite of passage. Historically, lions were hunted by individuals, however, due to reduced lion populations, elders discourage solo lion hunts.

This resulted in big cats being always suspected of being man-eaters, representing "both the fear of nature and the satisfaction of having overcome it".

Lion-baiting is a blood sport involving the baiting of lions in combat with other animals, usually dogs. Records of it exist in ancient times through until the seventeenth century.

It was finally banned in Vienna by and England in The term is also often used for the taming and display of other big cats such as tigers, leopards and cougars.

The practice began in the early 19th century by Frenchman Henri Martin and American Isaac Van Amburgh , who both toured widely and whose techniques were copied by a number of followers.

Martin composed a pantomime titled Les Lions de Mysore "the lions of Mysore" , an idea that Amburgh quickly borrowed.

These acts eclipsed equestrianism acts as the central display of circus shows and entered public consciousness in the early 20th century with cinema.

In demonstrating the superiority of human over animal, lion taming served a purpose similar to animal fights of previous centuries.

One well-publicised case is the Tsavo maneaters ; in , 28 officially recorded railway workers building the Kenya-Uganda Railway were taken by lions over nine months during the construction of a bridge over the Tsavo River in Kenya.

The infirmity theory, including tooth decay, is not favoured by all researchers; an analysis of teeth and jaws of man-eating lions in museum collections suggests that while tooth decay may explain some incidents, prey depletion in human-dominated areas is a more likely cause of lion predation on humans.

The authors note the relationship is well-attested among other pantherines and primates in the fossil record.

American and Tanzanian scientists report that man-eating behaviour in rural areas of Tanzania increased greatly from to At least villagers were attacked and many eaten over this period — a number far exceeding the Tsavo attacks.

While the expansion of villages into bush country is one concern, the authors argue conservation policy must mitigate the danger because in this case, conservation contributes directly to human deaths.

Cases in Lindi in which lions seize humans from the centres of substantial villages have been documented. According to Robert R.

Frump, Mozambican refugees regularly crossing Kruger National Park, South Africa, at night are attacked and eaten by lions; park officials have said man-eating is a problem there.

Frump said thousands may have been killed in the decades after apartheid sealed the park and forced refugees to cross the park at night.

For nearly a century before the border was sealed, Mozambicans had regularly crossed the park in daytime with little harm. Packer estimates between and Tanzanians are killed each year by wild animals and that lions are thought to kill at least 70 of these.

According to Packer between and , lions attacked people in Tanzania and killed Packer and Ikanda are among the few conservationists who believe western conservation efforts must take account of these matters because of ethical concerns about human life and the long-term success of conservation efforts and lion preservation.

A man-eating lion was killed by game scouts in Southern Tanzania in April Baldus, the GTZ wildlife programme coordinator, said it was likely that the lion preyed on humans because it had a large abscess beneath a cracked molar and wrote, "This lion probably experienced a lot of pain, particularly when it was chewing".

The "All-Africa" record of man-eating generally is considered to be a collection of incidents between the early s and the late s in modern-day Tanzania inflicted by a pride known as the "Njombe lions".

Game warden and hunter George Rushby eventually dispatched the pride, which over three generations is thought to have killed and eaten 1, to 2, people in Njombe district.

Sometimes, Asiatic lions may become man-eaters. The area of the Gir sanctuary is now insufficient to sustain their large number [] and lions have moved outside it, making them a potential threat to people in and around the park.

The lion is one of the most widely recognised animal symbols in human culture. It has been extensively depicted in sculptures and paintings, on national flags, and in contemporary films and literature.

The lion has been depicted as "king of the jungle" and "king of beasts", and thus became a popular symbol for royalty and stateliness.

Depictions of lions are known from the Upper Paleolithic period. Carvings and paintings of lions discovered in the Lascaux and Chauvet Caves in France have been dated to 15, to 17, years old.

The ancient Egyptians portrayed several of their war deities as lionesses, which they revered as fierce hunters. Egyptian deities associated with lions include: The lion was also believed to act as a guide to the underworld, through which the sun was believed to pass each night.

The presence of lion-footed tombs found in Egypt and images of mummies carried on the backs of lions suggests this close association of the lions with the underworld.

In Sub-Saharan Africa , cultural views of the lion have varied by region. In some cultures, the lion symbolises power and royalty, and some rulers had the word "lion" in their nickname.

In parts of West Africa, to be compared with a lion was considered to be a great compliment. In parts of West and East Africa, the lion is associated with healing and is regarded as the link between seers and the supernatural.

In other East African traditions, the lion is the symbol of laziness. The lion was a prominent symbol in ancient Mesopotamia from Sumer up to Assyrian and Babylonian times, where it was strongly associated with kingship.

The theme of the royal lion hunt, a common motif in the early iconography in West Asia, symbolized death and resurrection; the continuation of life was ensured by the killing of a god-like animal.

In the Book of Judges , Samson kills a lion as he travels to visit a Philistine woman. The power and ferocity of the lion is invoked when describing the anger of God Amos 3: The book of Isaiah uses the imagery of a lion laying with a calf and child, and eating straw to portray the harmony of creation Isa In the Puranic texts of Hinduism , Narasimha "man-lion" a half-lion, half-man incarnation or avatar of Vishnu , is worshipped by his devotees and saved the child devotee Prahlada from his father, the evil demon king Hiranyakashipu ; [] Vishnu takes the form of half-man, half-lion] creature in Narasimha, where he has a human torso and lower body, and a lion-like face and claws.

It was originally used only by Rajputs , a Hindu Kshatriya or military caste. After the birth of the Khalsa brotherhood in , the Sikhs also adopted the name "Singh" due to the wishes of Guru Gobind Singh.

Along with millions of Hindu Rajputs today, it is also used by over 20 million Sikhs worldwide. The Asiatic lion is found as an emblem on numerous flags and coats of arms across Asia, including on the National Emblem of India.

The Asiatic lion is a common motif in Chinese art ; it was first used in art during the late Spring and Autumn period fifth or sixth century BC and became more popular during the Han Dynasty BC — AD when imperial guardian lions started to be placed in front of imperial palaces for protection.

Because lions have never been native to China, early depictions were somewhat unrealistic; after the introduction of Buddhist art to China in the Tang Dynasty after the sixth century AD, lions were usually depicted wingless with shorter, thicker bodies and curly manes.

Lion-headed figures and amulets were excavated in tombs in the Greek islands of Crete , Euboea , Rhodes , Paros and Chios. They are associated with the Egyptian deity Sekhmet and date to the early Iron Age between the 9th and 6th centuries BC.

Similarly the wearing of lion skin such as the lion skin worn by Herackles also symbolizes victory over death. Lions are frequently depicted on coats of arms , either as a device on shields or as supporters , but the lioness is used much less frequently.

Such descriptions specify whether lions or other creatures are "rampant" rearing or "passant" crouching. The lion is used as a symbol of sporting teams, from national association football teams such as England , Scotland and Singapore to famous clubs such as the Detroit Lions [] of the NFL, Chelsea [] and Aston Villa , a team of the English Premier League , [] and by the Premiership itself, Eintracht Braunschweig of the Bundesliga , and many smaller clubs around the world.

Lions continue to appear in modern literature as characters including the messianic Aslan in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe and following books from The Chronicles of Narnia series written by C.

Lewis , [] and the comedic Cowardly Lion in L. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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