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Curses after the Old Kingdom era are less common though more severe, sometimes invoking the ire of Thoth or the destruction of Sekhemet.
They that shall break the seal of this tomb shall meet death by a disease that no doctor can diagnose. In , Louis Penicher wrote an account in which he recorded how a Polish traveler bought two mummies in Alexandria and embarked on a sea journey with the mummies in the cargo hold.
The traveler was alarmed by recurring visions of two specters, and the stormy seas did not abate until the mummies were thrown overboard. Zahi Hawass recalled that as a young archaeologist excavating at Kom Abu-Bellou he had to transport a number of artifacts from the Greco-Roman site.
His cousin died on that day, his uncle died on its first anniversary, and on the third anniversary his aunt died. Years later, when he excavated the tombs of the builders of the pyramids at Giza, he encountered the curse: May the hippopotamus be against them in water, the scorpion against them on land.
Though not superstitious, he decided not to disturb the mummies. However, he later was involved in the removal of two child mummies from Bahariya Oasis to a museum and reported he was haunted by the children in his dreams.
The phenomena did not stop until the mummy of the father was re-united with the children in the museum.
He came to the conclusion that mummies should not be displayed, though it was a lesser evil than allowing the general public into the tombs. Thereafter, the boy read everything he could find on Ancient Egypt, especially the Hyksos period.
The idea of a mummy reviving from the dead, an essential element of many mummy curse tales, was developed in The Mummy!: Loudon and published anonymously in Austin, — have similar plots, in which a female mummy takes magical revenge upon her male desecrator.
Jasmine Day therefore argues that the modern European concept of curses is based upon an analogy between desecration of tombs and rape, interpreting early curse fiction as proto-feminist narratives authored by women.
The famous Egyptologist James Henry Breasted worked with Carter soon after the first opening of the tomb. He reported how Carter sent a messenger on an errand to his house.
On approaching his home the messenger thought he heard a "faint, almost human cry". Upon reaching the entrance he saw the bird cage occupied by a cobra , the symbol of Egyptian monarchy.
The first of the mysterious deaths was that of Lord Carnarvon. He had been bitten by a mosquito , and later slashed the bite accidentally while shaving.
It became infected and blood poisoning resulted. Two weeks before Carnarvon died, Marie Corelli wrote an imaginative letter that was published in the New York World magazine, in which she quoted an obscure book that confidently asserted that "dire punishment" would follow any intrusion into a sealed tomb.
Morton , "I give him six weeks to live. The report points out that the Earl was only one of many to enter the tomb, on several occasions and that none of the others were affected.
Pneumonia was thought to be only one of various complications, arising from the progressively invasive infection, that eventually resulted in multiorgan failure.
In , the anthropologist Henry Field , accompanied by Breasted, visited the tomb and recalled the kindness and friendliness of Carter.
To him shall come fire, water and pestilence. Howard Carter was entirely skeptical of such curses. Skeptics have pointed out that many others who visited the tomb or helped to discover it lived long and healthy lives.
A study showed that of the 58 people who were present when the tomb and sarcophagus were opened, only eight died within a dozen years.
All the others were still alive, including Howard Carter, who died of lymphoma in at the age of Kinnaman who died in , a full 39 years after the event.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the novel, see The Curse of the Pharaohs novel. Cox; The Lancet ; 7 June The Mummy Curse of Tutankhamun".
When he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters, neither of whom survived infancy.
Horemheb records that the king appointed him "lord of the land" as hereditary prince to maintain law. He also noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared.
He ended the worship of the god Aten and restored the god Amun to supremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood.
The capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten abandoned. As part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Karnak in Thebes, where he dedicated a temple to Amun.
Many monuments were erected, and an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had "spent his life in fashioning the images of the gods".
The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull , Horemakhet , and Opet. His restoration stela says:.
The temples of the gods and goddesses Their shrines were deserted and overgrown. Their sanctuaries were as non-existent and their courts were used as roads If anyone made a prayer to a god for advice he would never respond.
The country was economically weak and in turmoil following the reign of Akhenaten. Diplomatic relations with other kingdoms had been neglected, and Tutankhamun sought to restore them, in particular with the Mitanni.
Evidence of his success is suggested by the gifts from various countries found in his tomb. Despite his efforts for improved relations, battles with Nubians and Asiatics were recorded in his mortuary temple at Thebes.
His tomb contained body armor, folding stools appropriate for military campaigns, and bows, and he was trained in archery.
Between September and October , various mummies were subjected to detailed anthropological, radiological, and genetic studies as part of the King Tutankhamun Family Project.
The research showed that Tutankhamun also had "a slightly cleft palate "  and possibly a mild case of scoliosis , a medical condition in which the spine deviates to the side from the normal position.
X-rays clearly show that the king suffered from Klippel—Feil syndrome , the congenital fusion of any two of the cervical vertebrae.
All seven vertebrae in his neck were completely fused together, so he was unable to move his head. The affliction may have forced Tutankhamun to walk with the use of a cane, many of which were found in his tomb.
This is currently the oldest known genetic proof of the disease. More than one strain of the malaria parasite was found, indicating that Tutankhamun contracted multiple malarial infections.
These factors, combined with the fracture in his left thighbone, which scientists had discovered in , may have ultimately been what killed the young king.
In , a team began DNA research on Tutankhamun and the mummified remains of other members of his family. The techniques used in the study, however, have been questioned.
Some geneticists dispute these findings, however, and "complain that the team used inappropriate analysis techniques. So far, only partial data for the two female mummies from KV21 has been obtained.
One consequence of inbreeding can be children whose genetic defects do not allow them to be brought to term. Major studies have been conducted in an effort to establish the cause of death.
There is some evidence, advanced by Harvard microbiologist Ralph Mitchell, that his burial may have been hurried. Although there is some speculation that Tutankhamun was assassinated, the consensus is that his death was accidental.
In June , German scientists said that they believed there was evidence that he had died of sickle cell disease. Other experts, however, rejected the hypothesis of homozygous sickle cell disease  based on survival beyond the age of 5 and the location of the osteonecrosis , which is characteristic of Freiberg-Kohler syndrome rather than sickle-cell disease.
Siblings are more likely to pass on twin copies of deleterious alleles , which is why children of incest more commonly manifest genetic defects.
Three international experts served as consultants: As stated above, the team discovered DNA from several strains of a parasite, proving that he was repeatedly infected with the most severe strain of malaria, several times in his short life.
Malaria can trigger circulatory shock or cause a fatal immune response in the body, either of which can lead to death. If Tutankhamun did suffer from a bone disease which was crippling, it may not have been fatal.
A review of the medical findings to date found that he suffered from mild kyphoscoliosis , pes planus flat feet , hypophalangism of the right foot, bone necrosis of the second and third metatarsal bones of the left foot, malaria, and a complex bone fracture of the right knee, which occurred shortly before his death.
In late , Egyptologist Dr. Chris Naunton and scientists from the Cranfield Institute performed a "virtual autopsy" of Tutankhamun, revealing a pattern of injuries down one side of his body.
Car-crash investigators then created computer simulations of chariot accidents. Naunton concluded that Tutankhamun was killed in a chariot crash: Working with anthropologist Dr.
Robert Connolly and forensic archaeologist Dr. Naunton said, "The charring and possibility that a botched mummification led to the body spontaneously combusting shortly after burial was entirely unexpected.
A further investigation, in , revealed that it was unlikely he had been killed in a chariot accident. Scans found that all but one of his bone fractures, including those to his skull, had been inflicted after his death.
The scans also showed that he had a partially clubbed foot and would have been unable to stand unaided, thus making it unlikely he ever rode in a chariot; this was supported by the presence of many walking sticks among the contents of his tomb.
Instead, it is believed that genetic defects arising from his parents being siblings, complications from a broken leg and his suffering from malaria, together caused his death.
However, various orthopaedic doctors, such as Dr. Gamble himself believes that the twisted position of the left foot is actually the result of mummification.
Marianne Eaton-Krauss , argue that the diagnosis of Tutankhamun being disabled on the account of possessing so many walking sticks is "aggravating" due to the fact that staffs and staves were a sign of prestige in Ancient Egypt, and were typically used, not as a crutch, but instead in hunting, hand-to-hand combat and to handle snakes.
Robert Connolly, Ashraj Selim, and Dr. Zahi Hawass , all support the notion that King Tutankhamun died as the result of an accident, whether it be from hunting or chariot crash.
Both Connolly  and Hawass  believe that Tutankhamun died suddenly away from home and had to be rushed back for mummification.
With the death of Tutankhamun and the two stillborn children buried with him, the Thutmoside family line came to an end.
The letters do not say how Tutankhamun died. In the message, Ankhesenamun says that she was very afraid, but would not take one of her own people as husband.
However, the son was killed before reaching his new wife. Not even Tutankhamun was spared. His images and cartouches were also erased.
Horemheb himself was left childless and willed the throne to Paramessu , who founded the Ramesside family line of pharaohs.
Tutankhamun was nine years old when he became Pharaoh , and he reigned for about ten years. Kings were venerated after their deaths through mortuary cults and associated temples.
Tutankhamun was one of the few kings worshiped in this manner during his lifetime. Temples of his cult were built as far away as in Kawa and Faras in Nubia.
The title of the sister of the Viceroy of Kush included a reference to the deified king, indicative of the universality of his cult. Tutankhamun was buried in a tomb that was unusually small considering his status.
His death may have occurred unexpectedly, before the completion of a grander royal tomb, causing his mummy to be buried in a tomb intended for someone else.
This would preserve the observance of the customary 70 days between death and burial. The case was designed to prevent the heightened rate of decomposition caused by the humidity and warmth from tourists visiting the tomb.
His tomb was robbed at least twice in antiquity, but based on the items taken including perishable oils and perfumes and the evidence of restoration of the tomb after the intrusions, it seems clear that these robberies took place within several months at most of the initial burial.
Eventually, the location of the tomb was lost because it had come to be buried by stone chips from subsequent tombs, either dumped there or washed there by floods.
Howard Carter took 10 years to catalog the items. For many years, rumors of a " curse of the pharaohs " probably fueled by newspapers seeking sales at the time of the discovery  persisted, emphasizing the early death of some of those who had entered the tomb.
The most prominent was George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon who died on 5 April , 5 months after the discovery of the first step leading down to the tomb on 4 November Pneumonia was thought to be only one of various complications, arising from the progressively invasive infection, that eventually resulted in multiorgan failure.
A study showed that of the 58 people who were present when the tomb and sarcophagus were opened, only eight died within a dozen years. All the others were still alive, including Howard Carter, who died of lymphoma in at the age of Kinnaman who died in , 39 years after the event.
The discoveries in the tomb were prominent news in the s. Tutankhamen came to be called by a modern neologism, "King Tut".
They have been to many countries, but probably the best-known exhibition tour was The Treasures of Tutankhamun tour, which ran from to This exhibition was first shown in London at the British Museum from 30 March until 30 September The Metropolitan Museum of Art organized the U.
More than eight million attended. In , the tour of Tutankhamun funerary objects entitled Tutankhamen: Deutsche Telekom sponsored the Bonn exhibition.
It featured the same exhibits as Tutankhamen: